Acta Veterinaria Eurasia
Original Article

Prevalence, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Virulence Determinants of Enterococci in Poultries in Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria


Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria


Department of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Ndufu Alike, Ebonyi State, Nigeria


Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria


Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria

Acta Vet Eurasia 2023; 49: 26-35
DOI: 10.5152/actavet.2022.22069
Read: 1005 Downloads: 358 Published: 13 January 2023

This study evaluated the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility, and virulence potential of enterococci in poultry and their environment in the area. Swab samples from chicken (370) cloacae and soil (46) were subjected to standard culture. Isolates identified biochemically were subjected to an antibiogram using 10 antimicrobial agents and their potential virulence determinants were assessed using standard procedures. Enterococcal species were isolated from 97.84% and 65.22% of the cloacal and soil samples, respectively. Resistance to the following antimicrobial agents was observed in the isolates: quinu prist quinupristin-dalfopristin (46.4%), erythromycin (51.2%), chloramphenicol (46.4%), vancomycin (20.2%), enrofloxacin (13.1%), linezolid (8.3%), teicoplanin (7.2%), and levofloxacin (5.95%). Totally 31 resistance patterns were detected, and 27 showed multiple resistance patterns. Enterococcal strains from soil demonstrated higher antimicrobial resistance than chicken strains, except for levofloxacin and linezolid. None of the strains showed resistance to high-level gentamicin and streptomycin. Phenotypic expression of enterococcal virulence revealed the following: surface layer, 70%; gelatinase production, 60%; biofilm, 55%; β-hemolysis, 32.5%; DNase production, 20%, and protease production, 37.5%. This study revealed that poultry and their environment had virulent enterococci with multiple drug resistance.

Cite this article as: Ezeh, G. C., Ogugua, A. J., Anyanwu, M. U., Awoyomi, O. J., & Nwanta, J. A. (2023). Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and virulence determinants of enterococci in poultries in Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. Acta Veterinaria Eurasia, 49(1), 26-35.

EISSN 2619-905X